The middle of the fifth amendment reads as follows:
nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself
In short there are two rights that are that are protected and both cases it is the right of someone accused of a crime.
1) You cannot try someone twice for the same crime although the amendment seems more specific in that the it has to involve life and limb. This why a person can get away with not being criminally charged and found innocent but can still be sued for the same crime as the second case does not put of the person in jeopardy of life and limb. This is why OJ Simpson escapes jail but ends up broke because he still loses the lawsuit. It is this issue of life and limb that becomes centerpiece but many other crimes are also likewise exempt as the principle is basically that the prosecution has only one shot to put you behind bars or take your life. Once you are declared innocent, the prosecution does not get another go around and keep you perpetually in jail or in a courtroom until they get it right.
I have mixed feelings about this but I see the idea the founders were protecting citizens from being constantly charged for something and thus constantly behind bars awaiting trial. The idea is to prevent government from making up charges or keeping forwarding the same charge over and over to keep someone in jail or in fear of their life. When coupled with the other rights in this area there is an overall protecting of liberty that is more important to the Founders than the government’s right to prosecute.
2) You cannot compel a person to be a witness against himself in any criminal case. Once again the constitution is specific in that this is a criminal case not a civil one. I have seen in civil trials where the person has been compelled to testify against himself or face contempt of court. The main idea is that you cannot compel a confession of guilty which coming out of a system where people could be compelled through torture or other means to condemn themselves. The Founders knew that this generated a lot of false confessions and so they eliminated it all together.
Honestly there is little to condemn here. The moment you make it OK for government to compel a confession you open up the means to include stuff that we hope humanity has put behind them to get that confession. Now there is a difference between getting information from an enemy combatant so the constitution only protects those who are citizens of the United States. However, if that government signs other documents that prevent those kinds of interrogation they should honor those agreement.